The TNM Cancer Staging Manual, 2019 Update
is used by physicians and healthcare professionals throughout the world to facilitate the uniform description and reporting of neoplastic diseases. Proper classification and staging of cancer is essential for the physician to assign proper treatment, evaluate results of management and clinical trials, and to serve as the standard for local, regional and international reporting on cancer incidence and outcome.
Used with permission of the American College of Surgeons, Chicago, Illinois. The original source for this information is the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual, Eighth Edition (2016) published by Springer Science+Business Media.
Significantly expanded and developed by international disease site expert panels, the Eighth Edition TNM Cancer Staging Manual brings together all the currently available knowledge on the staging of cancer at various anatomic sites. In this edition, evidence-based TNM staging is supplemented, as appropriate, by selected molecular markers and newly acquired insights into the molecular underpinnings of cancer. This edition features 12 entirely new staging systems, a wide range of changed or new staging definitions, and a refined emphasis on a personalized-medicine approach.